They had given themselves until the 2023 elections, but unfortunately did not make it that far. While not seen through to the end, this example shows us that crises do not necessarily favor the emergence of strong, solitary leaders. They can also give rise to broader and more unifying political alliances, though these may be more ephemeral, as they are solely guided by shared concern for the country's future.
Did Israel's political crisis also explain Yair Lapid and Naftali Bennett's takeover from the tenacious Benjamin Netanyahu in June 2021? Though ephemeral as well, Samy Cohen demonstrates that the duo did achieve a positive track record. They handled the public health crisis well, improved the internal political climate, resumed dialogue with Egypt and Jordan, voted on a substantial budget for Arab-centered policies… The rotation between positions that was enshrined in the coalition agreement may not have taken place, but this was mostly due to exogenous factors and the coalition's fragility in the Knesset at the time. This is similar to the Italian case, where a very broad coalition suffered from the same weaknesses. The "rational partnership" itself was not fundamentally challenged.
The national and the local
Finally, complementarity can also be found between a central power and local executives with wide-ranging prerogatives. As Benoît Pellistrandi explains, this is the case in Spain. Though Spain is a highly decentralized country, the powers of its prime minister have strengthened over the course of a few decades. However, this process has been accompanied by the strengthening of Spain's so-called autonomous communities, which have become essential instruments of government and administration as more powers have been transferred to them over time. Catalonia provides a particularly telling example. In his conclusion, Benoît Pellistrandi writes: "We know the French centralized system, the English parliamentary model and the German transactional model; Spain adds a polycentric model to this list. The system's origins are fascinating, rooted as they are in both history - think of the viceroys of the old monarchy - and democracy - there is no leadership without electoral support. One might ask whether it is not more advantageous to be first in one's own village rather than second in Madrid. Better still, is it not preferable to hold the reins in a regional stronghold than to try and govern a country that has seventeen other governments?"
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